31 October 2018, 05:25 WIB

Improving Environmental Quality

Ghani Nurtjahyadi | Humaniora

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 doc klhk

ENVIRONMENTAL quality is one of the supporting elements of human life. Understanding its importance, the Directorate General for Pollution Control and Environmental Damage (PPKL) at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) continues to improve various infrastructures to monitor environmental quality.

The PPKL DG has developed the Environmental Quality Index (IKLH), an index on the performance of national environmental management that also serves as a general reference.  

IKLH tracking units can be found in 419 districts and municipalities --spread out in 1,676 points to monitor the air quality index; 943 for water quality index; and forest and land coverage quality index in all provinces.

Additionally, the sea water as well as the peat ecosystem quality index are still under development.

The PPKL DG has also rebuilt its Air Quality Monitoring System (AQMS) in 2016. In the past three years, there were 13 AQMS stations installed in Jambi, Palembang, Palangkaraya, Pontianak, Pekanbaru, Banjarmasin, Padang, Makasar, Manado, Central Jakarta, Batam, Aceh and Mataram.

The AQMS stations continuously measure PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, HC, and CO parameters at the respective locations, especially during special events such as the Asian Games 2018 Jakarta-Palembang in August and September. The AQMS stations are now integrated with 45 other monitoring stations belonging to the regional governments of DKI Jakarta, North Kalimantan, Surabaya, Bandung, Karawang, and governmental bodies such as the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) as well as KLHK’s own station.

Aside from developing the infrastructure for air quality monitoring, KLHK also developed the infrastructure for water quality monitoring, called Onlimo, that provides information to the people about  water quality trend and status. Onlimo can also function as an early warning system, supporting capacity and environmental capacity.

The facility has been installed at 19 stations in ten river basin areas of Ciliwung, Cisadane, Bengawan Solo, Jenebarang, Musi, Citarum, Serayu, Way Sekampung, Toba and Sadang rivers.

A network of groundwater level monitoring system for the peat ecosystem has also been installed, consisting of 3,749 manual monitoring points, 375 consecutive monitoring points, and 321 rainfall monitoring points.

Pollution control
PPKL DG has put solid efforts to control pollution control efforts by providing assistance to 2,195 industries, amongst others, which has saved 230 million GJ in energy efficiency. It helped reduced 33 million tons of greenhouse gas emission, 492 million cubic-meter water efficiency, reduced 135 million tons of conventional emission and decreased 535 million tons of wastewater load. It has also successfully reduced 11.5 million tons of non-toxic and non-hazardous solid waste, reduced 13.6 million tons toxic and hazardous waste, and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs worth Rp7.3 trillion (US$479.3 million).

Another focus of the directorate general is the management of liquid waste. Three river basin areas: Ciliwung, Cisadane and Citarum, have been designated as pollution containment areas. The other four river basins, the Bengawan Solo, Brantas, Kapuas and Siak are still under development, while the other four are currently under study.

Meanwhile, the construction of domestic communal Wastewater Treatment Plants (IPAL) have reached 27 facilities serving 53,104 people and reduced up to 620.25 tons of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)--a parameter to measure living microorganisms in the water, per year.

On organic waste management, KLHK initiated the construction of Biodigesters, a device or structure that “digests” organic waste matter into methane using bacteria. Currently as many as 166 Biodigesters unit with combined capacity of 1,999.42 cubic-meter have been installed. Each unit has the capability of producing 290,744 cubic-meter methane gas per year that is equivalent to 133,742 kilograms of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) per year. Community Biodigester units has also saved 398 families Rp1.6 billion (US$105,058.40) per year.

Furthermore, river rehabilitation programs using the “Eco-riparian” method are being done to restore river functionalities as a lifesource as well as a public space where people and the environment can healthily interact. Deriving its name from “Riparian” zone --transitional area between land and water, Eco-riparian development was run from 2016 to 2017 alongside Ciliwung river in Srengseng Sawah, South Jakarta. Via collaboration with the private sectors and other government institutions, several facilities were being erected along the 1.5-kilometer riverside, amongst others: IPAL Wetland, traditional medicine herb garden (Taman Toga), composting hut, jogging track, educational hut, solar cell lights and Onlimo.

Efforts to improve environmental quality are also being carried out on land damaged by human activities such as mining and massive drainage of peatland ecosystem for agriculture and forestry industry, as well as damage to many Riparian zones due to land conversion.
According to the Ministry’s record, there are currently 330,454 hectare of “damaged” land that are spread over six provinces: West Sumatra, West Nusa Tenggara, Bangka Belitung, East Java, East Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan.

In the meantime, the government would still need to inventorize a total of 24.67 million hectare of peatland ecosystem which was divided into 864 Peat Hydrological Unit (KHG), according to their functions. So far only 29 KHG within 1.5 million hectare of peat that are already being inventorized.

Along with the inventorization, peatland recovery program is also carried out using water management methods by canal blocking for the purpose of re-hydrating dry peatlands. For KHGs outside company concession, in 2015-2018 the construction of 482 canal blocks were carried out over 7,346 hectare of peatland.

The program also involved the local community through mentoring and capacity building by 121 facilitators in 24 regencies resulting in 160 community work plan documents.

Recovery within companies’ concession area is carried out by first determining the groundwater level and providing assistance for Ministry-approved recovery plan. To date, the Ministry has approved peatland recovery plans from 109 companies, covering 822,944.41 hectare for plantations and 1.62 million hectare for Industrial Plantation Forests.

The number of canal blocks that have been constructed reached 9,055 units and is supplemented by 778 units of sluice gate and 229 units of retention basins or embungs. (S2-25)


Terus Tingkatkan Kualitas Lingkungan

KUALITAS lingkungan menjadi salah satu daya dukung kehidupan manusia. Karena itu, Direktorat Jenderal Pengendalian Pencemaran dan Kerusakan Lingkungan (PPKL) Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK) pun terus berupaya membangun infrastruktur pemantauan kualitas lingkungan.

Dirjen PPKL pun mengembangkan indeks kualitas lingkungan hidup (IKLH) yang merupakan indeks kinerja pengelolaan lingkungan hidup secara nasional dan menjadi acuan bersama bagi semua pihak dalam mengukur kinerja perlindungan dan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup.

IKLH berada di 419 kabupaten/kota berupa 1.676 titik pantau untuk indeks kualitas udara, 943 titik pantau indeks kualitas air, dan 34 provinsi telah terdapat titik pantau indeks kualitas tutupan hutan dan lahan. Saat ini pun sedang dikembangkan indeks kualitas air laut dan kualitas ekosistem gambut.

Dirjen PPKL juga membangun ulang sisem pemantauan kualitas udara (AQMS) pada 2016. Selama 3 tahun terakhir telah dibangun 13 stasiun AQMS di Jambi, Palembang, Palangka Raya, Pontianak, Pekanbaru, Banjarmasin, Padang, Makasar, Manado, Jakarta Pusat, Batam, Aceh, dan Mataram.

Stasiun AQMS yang mengukur parameter PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, HC, dan CO secara terus-menerus di lokasi pemantauan juga digunakan untuk memantau kualitas udara selama perhelatan Asian Games 2018 Jakarta-Palembang berlangsung. Stasiun pemantau AQMS kini juga sudah terintegrasi dengan 45 stasiun pemantau milik pemerintah daerah, yakni DKI Jakarta, Kalimantan Utara, Surabaya, Bandung, dan Karawang, juga stasiun BMKG dan stasiun KLHK.

Selain mengembangkan infrastruktur pemantauan kulaitas udara, KLHK juga membangun infrastruktur pemantauan kualitas air Onlimo yang memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat untuk kecenderungan kualitas dan status mutu air.

Onlimo yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai peringatan dini, daya tata dukung, dan daya tampung lingkungan itu kini telah terpasang di 19 stasiun yang berada di 10 Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Ciliwung, Cisadane, Bengawan Solo, Jenebarang, Musi, Citarum, Serayu, Way Sekampung, Toba, dan Sadang.

Saat ini juga sudah terbangun jaringan pemantauan tinggi muka air tanah di ekosistem gambut berupa 3.749 titik pantau manual, 375 titik pantau kontinu, dan 321 titik pantau curah hujan.

Pengendalian pencemaran
Di sisi lain, upaya pengendalian pencemaran juga dilakukan Dirjen PPKL. Salah satunya lewat pembinaan terhadap 2.195 industri yang menghasilkan efisiensi energi sebesar 230 juta GJ, penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca sebesar 33 juta ton, efisensi air 492 juta m3, penurunan emisi konvensional 135 juta ton, penurunan beban air limbah 535 juta ton, reduksi limbah padat non-B3 11,5 juta ton, reduksi limbah B3 13,6 juta ton, dan dana bergulir di masyarakat lewat program CSR mencapai Rp7,3 triliun.

Selain pembinaan perusahaan, perhatian Dirjen PPKL juga ditujukan pada pengelolaan limbah cair. Sejauh ini sudah ditetapkan tiga DAS, yaitu Ciliwung, Cisadane, dan Citarum, sebagai area daya tampung beban pencemaran. Empat DAS lain, yaitu Bengawan Solo, Brantas, Kapuas, dan Siak sedang dalam proses penetapan. Adapun empat DAS lain dalam proses kajian.

KLHK juga mendorong pembangunan IPAL domestik komunal yang kini sudah mencapai 27 IPAL yang melayani 53.104 orang dengan kemampuan menurunkan BOD hingga 620,25 ton/tahun.

Untuk penanganan limbah organik, KLHK mendorong terbangunnya biodigester yang kini sudah terpasang sebanyak 166 unit dengan kapasitas 1.999,42 meter kubik. Biodegester tersebut memiliki kemampuan metana sebesar 290.744 m3/tahun yang dapat menyubstitusi energi setara elpiji sebesar 133.742 kg/tahun. Pengembangan biodegester juga menghasilkan penghematan sebesar Rp1,6 miliar/tahun oleh 398 kepala keluarga.

Sementara itu, pemulihan kualitas sungai dengan konsep ekoriparian dilakukan dengan mengembalikan sungai sebagai sumber kehidupan, dan menjadikan sungai sebagai halaman depan tempat publik berinteraksi  sehingga tercipta budaya malu untuk membuang sampah dan limbah ke sungai.  Pengembangan ekoriparian dilaksanakan pada 2016-2017 di Sungai Ciliwung di Srengseng Sawah, Jakarta Selatan, sepanjang 1,5 km. Fasilitas yang dikembangkan antara lain (IPAL wetland, tanaman toga, saung kompos, jogging track, saung edukasi, lampu solar cell, dan alat pemantau kualitas air secara kontinu (onlimo).

Upaya meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan juga dilakukan di lahan yang rusak akibat kegiatan penambangam dan kerusakan ekosistem gambut akibat pembukaan lahan gambut secara besar-besaran untuk perkebunan dan industri kehutanan di masa lalu serta kerusakan wilayah riparian sungai akibat alih fungsi lahan.  

Jumlah lahan akses terbuka yang telah diinventarisasi kerusakan lahan mencapai 330.454 hektare, yang tersebar pada enam provinsi, yaitu Sumatra Barat, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Bangka Belitung, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Timur, dan Kalimantang Tengah.

Adapun pemulihan ekosistem gambut diawali dengan penetapan fungsi ekosistem gambut pada lahan seluas 24.667.804 ha yang dibagi menjadi 864 kesatuan hirologis gambut pada 2017. Inventarisasi secara detail (skala 1 : 50.000) terus dilakukan dan sampai saat ini telah diinventarisasi 29 KHG dengan luas 1.507.618 ha.

Bersamaan dengan kegiatan inventarisasi, pemulihan lahan gambut dilakukan melalui metode tata kelola air dengan membangun penyekatan saluran/kanal (tabat) yang bertujuan agar lahan gambut yang kering dapat dibasahi kembali (re-wetting). Untuk KHG yang berada di luar konsensi perusahaan, pada 2015-2018 telah diselesaikan pembangunan 482 sekat kanal dengan total area pembasahan seluas 7.346 ha.

Pelaksanaan pemulihan dilakukan melalui pendampingan dan peningkatan kemandirian masyarakat oleh 121 fasilitator pendamping di 24 kabupaten dan menghasilkan 160 dokumen rencana kerja masyarakat.

Pemulihan di kawasan konsesi perusahaan dilakukan dengan penetapan titik penataan tinggi muka air tanah dan pembinaan terhadap rencana pemulihan yang telah disetujui KLHK. Sampai saat ini telah disetujui rencana pemulihan dari 109 perusahaan, dengan luas area pemulihan seluas 822.944,41 ha untuk perkebunan dan 1.616.857, 32 ha untuk industri Hutan Tanaman Industri. Jumlah sekat kanal yang telah dibangun mencapai 9.054 unit dan ditambah dengan pintu air 778 unit serta embung 229 unit. (S2-25)